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生物识别数据:50个国家根据他们如何收集这些数据以及他们如何使用这些数据进行排名

Biometric data: 50 countries ranked by how they’re collecting it and what they’re doing with it

保罗·比肖夫科技作家,隐私权倡导者和 VPN 专家

Paul Bischoff TECH WRITER, PRIVACY ADVOCATE AND VPN EXPERT

2019年12月4日

@pabischoff December 4, 2019

从护照照片到通过指纹访问银行账户,生物特征识别技术的使用正以指数级增长。虽然使用你的指纹可能比输入密码更容易,但是当涉及到生物特征识别的使用时,到底有多远才算太远,而且一旦你的生物特征识别数据被收集起来,会发生什么,特别是在涉及到政府时?

From passport photos to accessing bank accounts with fingerprints, the use of biometrics is growing at an exponential rate. And while using your fingerprint may be easier than typing in a password, just how far is too far when it comes to biometric use, and what’s happening to your biometric data once it’s collected, especially where governments are concerned?

在比较科技公司,我们分析了50个不同的国家,来找出这些生物特征信息是在哪里被窃取的,被窃取的目的是什么,以及它们是如何被储存的。虽然生物特征数据收集的范围很大,但我们采用了适用于大多数国家的5个关键领域(以便提供公平的逐国比较,并确保数据可用)。在25个国家中,每个国家都得了高分,高分表明广泛和侵犯性地使用生物特征识别和 / 或监视,低分表明在生物特征识别使用和监视方面有更好的限制和规定。

Here at Comparitech, we’ve analyzed 50 different countries to find out where biometrics are being taken, what they’re being taken for, and how they’re being stored. While there is huge scope for biometric data collection, we have taken 5 key areas that apply to most countries (so as to offer a fair country-by-country comparison and to ensure the data is available). Each country has been scored out of 25, with high scores indicating extensive and invasive use of biometrics and/or surveillance and a low score demonstrating better restrictions and regulations regarding biometric use and surveillance.

尽管中国名列榜首并不令人感到太惊讶,但其他国家的居民(以及前往这些国家的旅行者)可能会感到惊讶和担心,他们收集到的生物特征信息的范围之广,以及随后发生的事情。

While China topping the list perhaps doesn’t come as too much of a surprise, residents of (and travelers to) other countries may be surprised and concerned at the extent of biometric information that is being collected on them and what is happening to it afterward.

主要发现

Key findings

国家(欧盟和非欧盟)使用生物特征识别技术

Biometric use by country (EU and non-EU)

国家 Country 护照 Passports 身份证 IDs 没有法律 No laws 银行 Banks 选民登记 Voter Registration 储存 Storage 闭路电视 CCTV 工作间 Workplace 签证 Visas 合计 Total
欧盟 EU
爱沙尼亚 Estonia 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 5 5 2 2 3 3 4 4 18 18
法国 France 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 15 15
斯洛伐克 Slovakia 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 5 1 1 3 3 4 4 15 15
瑞典 Sweden 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 4 15 15
芬兰 Finland 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 15 15
德国 Germany 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 15 15
匈牙利 Hungary 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 15 15
意大利 Italy 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 15 15
立陶宛 Lithuania 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 4 14 14

显示52个参赛作品中的1到10个

Showing 1 to 10 of 52 entries Previous Next

5个最差国家

5 Worst Countries

这5个国家总体得分最高,这意味着他们对人们生物特征数据的隐私缺乏关注。通过收集、使用和存储生物特征数据,这些国家将生物特征识别技术应用到一个严重的、具有侵略性的程度。

These 5 countries received the highest scores overall, meaning they are showing a concerning lack of regard for the privacy of people’s biometric data. Through the collection, use, and storage of biometric data, these countries use biometrics to a severe and invasive extent.

排名 Rank 国家 Country 得分 Score
1号 #1 中国 China 24 / 25 24/25
2号 #2 马来西亚 Malaysia 21 / 25 21/25
3号 #3 巴基斯坦 Pakistan 21 / 25 21/25
4号 #4 美国 USA 20 / 25 20/25
5号 #5 印度、印度尼西亚、菲律宾和台湾 India, Indonesia, The Philippines and Taiwan 19 / 25 19/25

1. 中国24 / 25

1. China = 24/25

由于缺乏生物特征识别投票系统,中国仅仅勉强勉强过关一关。然而,投票系统是非常严格的控制,这可能避免了生物统计投票的需要。它还在其他所有类别中获得最高分:

China only managed to scrape back one mark for its lack of a biometric voting system. However, the voting system is very heavily controlled, which perhaps rids the need for biometric voting. It also scored maximum points across all of the other categories for:

2. 马来西亚21 / 25

2. Malaysia = 21/25

尽管马来西亚确实比中国好一点,但由于这一点,马来西亚在各个领域的得分仍然很低:

Although Malaysia does fair a little better China, it does still score poorly across all categories due to it:

3. 巴基斯坦21 / 25

3. Pakistan = 21/25

虽然巴基斯坦的得分与马来西亚相同,但这并不是因为在所有类别的得分都很高。相反,巴基斯坦在签证方面做得更好,因为并非所有签证都包含生物识别技术,而且入境时也不采集指纹。不过,它在以下方面的得分确实很高:

While Pakistan does have the same score as Malaysia, this isn’t due to heavy scoring across all categories. Rather, Pakistan does better when it comes to visas as not all visas contain biometrics and no fingerprints are taken when someone enters the country. However, it did score highly for:

4. 美国20 / 25

4. United States = 20/25

美国在大多数领域的得分都很高,原因是:

The US scores highly in most areas due to:

5. 台湾、菲律宾、印度和印度尼西亚19

5. Taiwan, the Philippines, India, and Indonesia = 19

所有这四个国家以19分并列第五位,而且这四个国家都位于亚洲。

All four of these countries tie in fifth place with a score of 19 – and all four of these countries are located in Asia.

除了菲律宾的闭路电视使用和印度尼西亚的签证,所有这些项目在大多数项目中都得分很高。

All of them score highly across most categories except for the Philippines’ CCTV use and Indonesia’s visas.

菲律宾只是在谈论面部识别的使用,但是它在其他所有领域都得分很高。

The Philippines is only talking about the use of facial recognition, but it scores highly in all other areas.

印度尼西亚允许来自许多国家的公民免签进入该国。即使需要签证,很多人也不需要生物识别技术。然而,印度尼西亚的评分是由其国家生物识别数据库提供的,这些数据是从身份证上采集的,其中包括指纹。

Indonesia lets citizens from a vast number of countries enter the country without a visa. Even when a visa is required, many don’t require biometrics. Nevertheless, Indonesia’s score is brought up by its national database of biometrics, which are taken from ID cards and include fingerprints.

印度还有一个全国性的生物特征数据库,是世界上最大的。这就是众所周知的 Aadhaar。然而,他们避免了最高分,因为执法部门不允许访问数据库。

India also has a national biometric database, the largest in the world. This is known as the Aadhaar. However, they avoid a maximum score because law enforcement isn’t permitted to access to the database.

台湾的全国生物识别数据库包括所有公民的身份证照片和警方使用的面部识别技术。然而,由于数据库中没有指纹,它避免了像印度尼西亚那样的「极端」评分。

Taiwan’s national database of biometrics includes all citizens’ ID photos and features facial recognition technology, which is used by the police. Due to the absence of fingerprints in the database, however, it avoids an “extreme” score like Indonesia.

5个最佳国家

5 Best Countries

排名 Rank 国家 Country 得分 Score
1号 #1 爱尔兰 Ireland 11 / 25 11/25
2号 #2 葡萄牙 Portugal 11 / 25 11/25
3号 #3 塞浦路斯 Cyprus 12 / 25 12/25
4号 #4 英国 UK 12 / 25 12/25
5号 #5 罗马尼亚 Romania 12 / 25 12/25

1. 爱尔兰11

1. Ireland = 11

与葡萄牙合作,爱尔兰成功地保护了生物识别数据,只有一个小型数据库,包括犯罪档案,对员工生物识别数据有额外的保障(例如,同意并不总是足够的,这超出了 gpr 的要求),而且它不是申根协定的一部分,所以不采取生物识别入境。不过,正如我们已经看到的那样,对于爱尔兰使用面部识别闭路电视摄像头的做法存在一些疑问,这种做法正受到质疑。

Joint with Portugal, Ireland succeeds in protecting biometric data by only having a small database that includes criminal profiles, having extra safeguards for employee biometric data (e.g. consent is not always enough, which goes beyond GDPR requirements), and it isn’t part of the Schengen Agreement so doesn’t take biometrics upon entry. As we have already seen, though, there are some doubts over Ireland’s use of facial recognition CCTV cameras, which are being pulled into question.

2. 葡萄牙11

2. Portugal = 11

葡萄牙是得分最低的国家(和爱尔兰一样)。

Portugal is the lowest-scoring country (along with Ireland).

在葡萄牙,生物识别数据库是被禁止的。因此,由于没有任何形式的生物特征数据库,这是唯一一个在存储部分获得清白资产负债表的国家。此外,葡萄牙还缺乏人脸识别监控系统、工作场所的生物特征识别保护以及帮助保护公民生物特征识别的法律。

In Portugal, biometric databases are prohibited. Therefore, this is the only country to earn a clean sheet in the storage section as there isn’t any form of biometric database. Portugal also scores well for its lack of facial recognition CCTV, protection of biometrics in the workplace, and law that helps protect citizens’ biometrics.

3. 塞浦路斯12

3. Cyprus = 12

塞浦路斯得分很高,因为正如我们之前看到的,它不属于申根国家,所以它不会成为进出口体系的一部分。而且,不像许多欧盟成员国,它不会参与大型的中央数据库。面部识别不在公共场所实施,法院在工作场所保护雇员的生物特征识别。

Cyprus scores well because, as we have seen previously, it isn’t one of the Schengen countries so it won’t be part of the Entry/Exit System. And, unlike many EU-member countries, it won’t be taking part in the large centralized database. Facial recognition is not implemented in public areas and courts have protected employees’ biometrics within the workplace.

4. 英国12

4. United Kingdom = 12

总体而言,英国表现不错,因为它只有很小的生物特征数据库,例如一个针对罪犯的数据库,一个针对进入英国的非英国公民的数据库,而且它受英国公共安全与公共关系规则的管理。面部识别闭路电视系统似乎也管理得很好。例如,面部识别技术正在国王十字车站使用,但没有事先通知(因此同意)。现在已经关闭,进一步开发的计划也被搁置。它也正在其他地区进行测试,但继续遇到持续的抗议活动。

On the whole, the United Kingdom does well because it only has small biometric databases, e.g. one for criminals and one for non-UK citizens who enter the country, and it is governed by GDPR rules. Facial recognition CCTV is also something that seems to be governed well. For example, facial recognition technology was being used at King’s Cross Station but without prior notification (and thus consent). It has now been switched off and plans to develop it further have been placed on hold. It is also being tested in other areas but continues to meet ongoing protests.

5. 罗马尼亚12

5. Romania = 12

罗马尼亚的得分与塞浦路斯相同,因为它没有人脸识别闭路电视,而且它还不是申根协定的一部分,所以得分特别高。然而,值得注意的是,罗马尼亚正在就加入进行谈判,这将使他们的得分至少提高2分,因为在进入该国时将收集生物特征信息。

With the same score as Cyprus, Romania does particularly well due to its lack of facial recognition CCTV and the fact it isn’t yet part of the Schengen Agreement. However, it is worth noting that Romania is in talks to join, which would increase their score by at least 2 points as biometrics would then be collected upon entry to the country.

尽管大多数国家都有令人关切的领域,但这5个国家似乎正在积极采取措施,设法保护某些领域的生物鉴别数据。同样的12分,瑞士也应该被认为是我们的「最佳国家」部分。

Despite most countries having areas of concern, these 5 countries appear to be proactively putting measures in place to try and protect certain areas of biometric data. And with the same score of 12, Switzerland should also be considered with our “best countries” section.

瑞士12

Switzerland = 12

瑞士是非欧盟国家中得分最低的国家,因为它没有生物识别身份证、投票系统或公共区域的面部识别摄像头。它对生物特征识别有专门的法律规定,仅限于犯罪分子的生物特征数据库,并对员工的生物特征识别有额外的保护措施。然而,瑞士是《申根协定》的一部分,这意味着它将在2020年成为出入境制度的一部分。

Switzerland is the lowest-scoring of our non-EU countries due to it not having biometric ID cards, voting system, or facial recognition cameras in public areas. It has a specific law in place for biometrics, a criminal-only biometric database, and extra safeguards in place for employee biometrics. Switzerland is part of the Schengen Agreement, however, which means it will become part of the Entry/Exit system in 2020.

欧盟

The European Union

你可能已经注意到了,没有一个欧盟国家在这项研究的前五名中。只有一个得了18分(爱沙尼亚)。

As you will have noticed, no EU countries feature in the top five of this study. And only one scores 18 (Estonia).

总的来说,得分较低的原因是一般数据保护条例(GDPR)及其对生物特征识别的规定,尤其是在工作场所。任何国家在这一部分的得分都不能超过3分,因为 gpr 法律规定,「为了唯一识别自然人的目的处理生物特征数据[ … ]是被禁止的。」 但是,如果」数据当事人明确表示同意」,或者」为履行控制员或数据当事人在就业领域的义务和行使特定权利的目的而有必要」,则不适用这一规定

Overall, these lower scores are due to the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and its regulation of biometrics, especially in the workplace. No country scores over a 3 for this section as the GDPR law states, “processing biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person […] shall be prohibited.” But this doesn’t apply if “the data subject has given explicit consent” or if it is “necessary for the purposes of carrying out the obligations and exercising specific rights of the controller or of the data subject in the field of employment.”

在某些情况下,由于各国在本国法律范围内或在特定情况下对法律的解释,它们的得分确实较低。例如,荷兰在这一类别中得了1分(唯一一个实现这一目标的国家),因为它们引入了更多的保障措施。他们还做出了有利于一名员工的裁决,该员工拒绝为需要手指扫描才能获得授权的新收银机提供指纹。法院裁定有侵入性更小的选择,这些应该首先进行试验。

In some cases, countries do score lower due to how they have interpreted the law, either within their own laws or in specific cases. For example, the Netherlands scores a 1 in this category (the only country to achieve this) as they have introduced even more safeguards. And they also ruled in favor of an employee who refused to provide their fingerprint for new cash registers that required a finger scan for authorization. The court ruled that there were less invasive options available and these should have been trialed first.

所有欧盟国家在中央电视台的得分都在3分或更低。一些国家采用了面部识别技术,但仅限于某些领域或特定事件。

All EU countries scored 3 or less when it comes to CCTV. Some countries adopted facial recognition but only in certain areas or for specific events.

然而,大多数欧盟国家倒下的地方是签证部分。

However, where most EU countries fall down is in the visa section.

为什么?

Why?

2020年,出入境制度将作为申根协定的一部分在欧盟内部实施。它建立了一个覆盖28个国家的庞大生物特征数据库,每个成员国的执法部门都可以访问这个数据库。该系统与申根成员国共享的其他各种数据库一起使用,其中包括签证信息系统(VIS),该系统已经包含6000多万份签证申请和4000万套指纹。

In 2020, the Entry/Exit System will be implemented within the EU as part of the Schengen Agreement. It creates a vast biometric database spanning 28 countries, and each member countries’ law enforcement will have access to it. This is alongside various other databases shared across Schengen member countries including the Visa Information System (VIS), which already contains over 60 million visa applications and 40 million sets of fingerprints.

保加利亚、塞浦路斯、英国、罗马尼亚和爱尔兰都不是申根协定的成员国,但是塞浦路斯和罗马尼亚正在进行加入该协定的谈判。此外,英国脱欧后的立场可能会发生变化。

Bulgaria, Cyprus, the UK, Romania, and Ireland are not members of the Schengen Agreement, but there are talks in place for Cyprus and Romania to join. Furthermore, the UK’s position may change post-Brexit.

希腊、匈牙利和拉脱维亚的边界检验

iBorderCtrl testing in Greece, Hungary, and Latvia

欧盟刚刚完成了跨越这三个国家边界的 iBorderCtrl(智能便携式控制系统)测试。本质上,这是一个测谎仪测试。

The EU has just finished testing iBorderCtrl (Intelligent Portable Control System) across the borders of these three countries. Essentially, it’s a lie detector test.

旅行者必须上传他们的签证、护照的照片,并提供资金证明的证据,然后才能使用网络摄像头回答动画边境警卫的问题。欧盟表示,这种「欺骗侦测」将分析旅行者的微动手势,以确定受访者是否在说谎。任何被标记为高危人群的旅行者都必须在边境接受更详细的检查。

Travelers had to upload pictures of their visas, passports, and provide evidence of their proof of funds before using a webcam to answer questions from an animated border guard. The EU suggested this “deception detection” would analyze travelers’ micro gestures to ascertain whether or not the interviewee is lying. Any travelers’ who are flagged as high risk have to undergo more detailed checks at the border.

欧盟官员希望这个测试阶段将允许他们在不久的将来在大多数欧盟边境推出这项技术,但我们正在等待这一点的确认。

EU officials hoped that this testing phase would allow them to roll the technology out at most EU borders in the near future but we are awaiting confirmation on this.

爱沙尼亚18

Estonia = 18

爱沙尼亚是排名最差的欧盟国家,因为它的高分在大多数类别(除央视)和其极其贫穷的5 / 5的储存部分。后者是由于其全国性的生物特征数据库,其中包含了从处方到银行细节,从教育到公共汽车票的大量信息。所有这些都可以通过指纹访问,并创建一个数字国民身份证。尽管这个数据库是分散的,并且被认为有一些最先进的技术来保护它,但是数据库确实存在,执法部门可以访问部分数据库。

Estonia is the worst-ranked EU country due to its high score across most categories (except CCTV) and its extremely poor 5/5 in the storage section. The latter is due to its nationwide biometric database, which contains a vast amount of information from prescriptions to banking details and education to bus tickets. All of this is accessed with fingerprints and creates a digital national ID card. Despite this database being decentralized and deemed to have some of the most advanced technology protecting it, the database does exist and parts are accessible by law enforcement.

法国15

France = 15

2016年,法国表示计划建立一个中央数据库 Alicem,其中将包括所有护照和身份证的生物特征信息。这项技术目前正在推出过程中,但是现在已经被改造成使用面部识别技术。(由于在撰写本报告时这项规定仍在实施之中,而且对于是否引入指纹也存在一些争议,因此我们暂时不予考虑)。

In 2016, France said it had plans to create a centralized database, Alicem, that will include biometrics from all passports and IDs. This is currently in the process of being rolled out but has now been altered to use facial recognition technology. (As this is still being implemented at the time of writing, and there is also some debate over its introduction and whether fingerprints will be included, we have held off a point).

这个工具将为市民提供大量的在线服务,例如健康保险、车辆登记和身份证,但是要实现这些,需要面部识别识别。

The tool will give citizens access to a vast array of online services, e.g. health insurance, vehicle registration, and ID Cards, but to carry these out, facial recognition identification is required.

法国数据保护机构—法国国家数据保护委员会(CNIL)对 Alicem 提出了批评,建议提供面部识别注册的替代方案(例如,有人亲自注册)。法国国家数据保护委员会还对连接历史数据存储在服务器上长达七年的事实表示关注。

The French data protection agency, CNIL, has criticized Alicem, suggesting that an alternative to the facial recognition registration (e.g. someone signing up in person) should be offered. CNIL also raised concerns over the fact that connection history data is stored on the server for seven years.

爱尔兰11

Ireland = 11

一些城市已经安装了面部识别摄像头(用于测试),但这违反了爱尔兰法律。因此,爱尔兰的数据保护专员现在打算对这些闭路电视摄像机的运行情况展开调查,因为据信这些数据正在被非法收集并扣押在公民身上。

Facial recognition cameras have been installed in some cities (for testing purposes) but this is contrary to Irish law. As a result, Ireland’s Data Protection Commissioner now intends to launch an investigation into the operation of these CCTV cameras as it is believed that data is being illegally gathered and held on citizens.

其他需要关注的主要领域

Other key areas for concern

日本16

Japan = 16

日本目前在许多不同的方面使用面部识别技术(但由于尚未在全国范围内推广,因此没有得到满分)。一个例子是对赌博设施进行监测,以便在赌徒抵达后就能查明他们的身份,并拒绝他们进入赌博设施。目前,只有赌瘾者本人或亲人可以要求将他们的脸加入系统。

Japan is currently using facial recognition in a number of different ways (but doesn’t score full marks because it hasn’t been rolled out nationally as of yet). An example is the monitoring of gambling facilities so gambling addicts can be identified upon arrival and refused entry to the establishments. At present, only the gambling addict themselves or a loved one can request for their face to be added to the system.

巴西18

Brazil = 18

巴西目前正在建立一个全国性的数据库(由于这个数据库将于明年建立,我们的评分已经考虑到了这一点)。该数据库将包括超过2亿人的详细信息,信息「将尽可能广泛地共享」 这些信息包括生物特征细节、虹膜、声音、面部表情和步态,这些信息已经被收集起来形成身份证文件。

Brazil is currently in the process of implementing a nationwide database (and as this is coming into place next year, this has been taken into consideration with our scoring). The database will include details of more than 200 million people and information “will be shared as widely as possible.” This information includes biometric details, iris, voice, facial format, and gait, which are already collected to form ID documents.

方法论

Methodology

为了给25个国家打分,我们创建了5个分类。较高的分数表明较低的分数表明更多的生物特征入侵。

To give countries a score out of 25 we created five categories. Higher scores indicate more biometric intrusion than lower ones.

第一类是一组简单的五个是或否的问题。答案是肯定的,因为它们表明在某一领域使用生物鉴别技术(或缺乏法律保护),没有答案是零,因为没有收集生物鉴别技术(或者受到某一具体法律的保护)。

The first category was a simple set of five yes or no questions. Yes answers were allocated one point as they indicated the use of biometrics in a certain area (or lack of protection by law), and no answers were given a zero as no biometrics were being collected (or they were being protected by a specific law).

这些问题是:

These questions were:

接下来的四个类别得到了5分。

The next four categories were scored out of 5.

储存

Storage

0 没有生物特征数据库

0 = No biometric database

1 非常小的生物特征数据库(即犯罪数据库),没有警察访问

1 = Very small biometric database (i.e. criminal database) with no police access

2 非常小的生物特征资料库(即犯罪资料库),可供警方使用

2 = Very small biometric database (i.e. criminal database) with police access

3 中型生物识别数据库,可由警察查阅

3 = Medium-sized biometric database with police access

4 全国大部分地区的生物识别数据库(没有指纹)都有警方的访问权限

4 = Most of the nation on a biometric database (no fingerprints) with police access

5 全国大部分地区的生物特征数据库(包括指纹)都有警方的访问权限

5 = Most of the nation on a biometric database (including fingerprints) with police access

闭路电视

CCTV

0 没有或很少使用闭路电视

0 = No or very little CCTV in use

1 也许有人提到,随着面部识别技术的应用,闭路电视的使用也在增加

1 = Increasing CCTV use with facial recognition perhaps being mentioned

2 面部识别闭路电视测试

2 = Testing facial recognition CCTV

3 开始在多个地方实施面部识别闭路电视

3 = Starting to implement facial recognition CCTV in multiple places

4 大多数地方使用面部识别闭路电视和一些极端的例子(例如被用来监视某些人群)

4 = Most places using facial recognition CCTV and some extreme cases (e.g. being used to monitor certain groups of people)

5 在全国范围内有一些极端病例

5 = Nationwide with a number of extreme cases

工作间

Workplace

0 禁止使用生物识别技术

0 = The use of biometrics is banned

1 生物识别技术可以使用,但只能在极端情况下使用(例如,用于获取极度敏感的信息)

1 = Biometrics may be used but only in extreme cases (i.e. for access to ultra-sensitive information)

2 生物特征识别受到多种保护措施的保护,雇主仅仅同意使用是不够的

2 = Biometrics are protected by multiple safeguards and employee consent isn’t enough for employers to use them

3 更少的安全措施来保护生物特征(或者不是特定于工作场所的安全措施)和同意就足够了

3 = Fewer safeguards to protect biometrics (or safeguards that aren’t specific to the workplace) and consent is enough

4 极少的安全措施和一些过度使用的情况

4 = Very few safeguards and some cases of excessive use

5 没有保障措施和过度使用的情况

5 = No safeguards and cases of excessive use

签证

Visas

0 入境时无需签证和检查

0 = No visa required and no check when entering the country

1 很少有国家需要不含生物识别技术的签证,入境时也不使用生物识别技术

1 = Few countries require a visa that doesn’t contain biometrics and no biometrics are taken when people enter the country

2 一些国家(但不是所有国家)需要签证,其中包括生物特征识别技术,并对入境者进行一些生物特征识别检查(这不包括公民)

2 = Some countries (but not all) require a visa which does contain biometrics and there are some biometric checks for people entering the country (this excludes citizens)

3 一些国家(但不是所有国家)需要签证,其中包括生物特征识别技术,并对入境者进行一些生物特征识别检查

3 = Some countries (but not all) require a visa which does contain biometrics and there are some biometric checks for those entering the country

4 大多数国家要求签证,其中包括生物特征识别技术,并有一些生物特征检查时,进入该国

4 = Most countries require a visa which does contain biometrics and there are some biometric checks when entering the country

5 所有国家都需要生物识别技术的签证,或者每个人入境时都要接受生物识别检查

5 = All countries require a visa which does contain biometrics and/or everyone is biometrically checked when entering the country

尽管我们试图涵盖尽可能多的生物特征识别技术领域,但可能存在一些局限性。为了确保更公平地逐国比较,我们将重点放在数据更容易获得的更常见的类别 / 领域。例如,我们没有把无人机包括在内,因为目前,许多无人机只是在军事行动中使用,或者仍在少数国家作为潜在的测试进行讨论。

While we have tried to cover as many areas of biometrics as possible, there may be some limitations. To ensure a fairer country-by-country comparison we have focused on more common categories/areas where data is more readily available. For example, we haven’t included drones as, at present, many are only in military operations or are still being discussed as a potential test in a small number of countries.

如果一项法律已经通过,并将在明年生效,我们已经根据这项法律对国家进行了评分,因为这项法律即将生效,并将得到执行。我们根据国家法律对国家进行评分,以便考虑到大多数人的利益(也就是说,我们没有考虑到美国的州或城市法律,因为这些法律涉及到少数人)。

If a law has been passed and is coming into place next year, we have scored the country based on this as it is going to happen and will be enforced. We have scored countries based on national laws so as to account for the majority of people (i.e. we haven’t taken state or city laws into account in the US as these relate to the minority).

对于生物特征识别选民登记,生物特征识别本身可能不是必需的,但是你需要使用你的生物特征识别身份证来投票(在这种情况下,这个系统被归类为生物特征识别系统,因为这些是公民投票所必需的)。

For biometric voter registration, biometrics might not be required per se but you will need to use your biometric ID card to vote (in which case, the system is classed as being a biometric one as these are essential for citizens to vote).

面部识别技术也许可以在机场使用,但是如果只是用于登机手续的话,这个技术就不会得分。

Facial recognition may be used in airports but this isn’t scored if it’s just for check-ins.

为了找到这些数据,我们分析了各种各样的信息,包括政府立法、新闻文章、新闻稿和政府信息。关于每个国家的完整资料来源清单,请参阅以下文件:

To find this data, we analyzed a variety of information, including government legislation, news articles, press releases, and government information. For a full list of sources for each country, please see the following documents:

按国家(非欧盟)划分的生物特征识别-来源和评论

Biometrics by Country (non-EU) – sources and commentary

按国家(欧盟)划分的生物特征识别-来源和评论

Biometrics by Country (EU) – sources and commentary

生物特征识别评分表

Biometrics Score Sheet

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滥用生物识别数据排名  2020-02-10 06:25  分类:图书  搜索直达:c1128390 

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(2019年12月4日,Comparitech,机译)有鉴于生物特征数据的运用日益广泛,针对全球50国进行分析,通过5个子项目、储存、监视器、工作场所与签证5个领域给分,结果中共毫不意外的居冠。

https://www.comparitech.com/blog/vpn-privacy/biometric-data-study/

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